||Introduction. Hydraulics as discipline. Definition of liquid and fluid. Forces in liquid. Standards and constants in HYAE.
Properties of liquid/water. Mass density, thermal expansion, compressibility, surface tension and capillarity, viscosity, rheological characteristics.
Types of pressure, pressure variation. Euler hydrostatic
equation. Vacuum gauge pressure. Pascal`s law and its applications.
Hydrostatic force acting at horizontal and inclined plane area,
pressure body. Determination of bearing point of hydrostatic force.
Resolution of hydrostatic force in components, pressure diagrams.
Effective distribution of horizontal support beams for vertical sluice.
Archimedes principal and buoyancy force. Floating bodies. Immersion of
||Basics of hydrodynamics. Characteristics of flow. Trajectories and streamlines. Local and average velocity, discharge. Types and regimes of flow.
Continuity equation. Euler hydrodynamic equation for ideal liquid.
Bernoulli equation for ideal and real liquid - applications. Momentum equation.
||Hydraulics of pipelines. Application of Bernoulli and continuity equation.
Friction loss. Darcy-Weisbach equation. Friction losses coefficient and its determination, Moody diagram.
Local losses – source of losses, coefficients of local losses.
||Hydraulics of pipelines. Hydraulic solutions for pipelines.
Underpressure in a pipeline – example: siphon.
Pipe – pump systems. Pipeline networks. Water hammer.
||Outflow from orifice. Types of outflow. Free steady outflow of ideal liquid.
Free steady outflow of real liquid from orifice in horizontal and vertical walls.
Outflow from submerged orifice. Outflow jets and their decay.
||Open channel hydraulics. Types of open-channel flow – steady and unsteady flow, uniform and non-uniform flow.
Friction losses in uniform flow, Chezy equation, friction coefficient, velocity coefficient.
Hydraulic solutions for open channels.
Design of open channels, incl. compound channels and closed profiles with free water surface.
||Open channel hydraulics.
Flow regimes: critical, subcritical and supercritical flow – specific
energy, critical flow condition. Determination of critical depth and
flow regime. Non-uniform flow, development in water surface, backwater
and headwater. Hydraulic jump.
||Application of momentum equation.
Hydraulic jump. Acting forces in pressurized flow in pipe. Hydrodynamic force acting on sluice gate.
Force impact of free jet on a boundary area (blade of turbine).
||Hydraulics of hydraulic structures on water courses.
Overflow, spillways: Sharp crested spillway, wide crested spillway.
Hydraulic solution for bridge with one opening. Flow in culverts.
||Hydraulics of ground water. Forms of underground water. Filtration law.
Plane flow – uniform and non uniform, drawdown curve under non-uniform flow on horizontal bedrock.
Resolution of ground water uptake from wells and drainage cuts.
||Discharge measurements. Applications, methods, equipments.