Czech Technical University in Prague
Faculty of Civil Engineering

Department of Hydraulics and Hydrology
Hydraulics 141HYAE


1. Introduction. Structure and aims of hydraulics. Definition of liquid and fluid. Forces in liquid. Standards in hydraulics.
Properties of water. Mass density, volume expansion and compressibility, surface tension and capillarity, viscosity, flow characteristics.
Hydrostatics. Hydrostatic pressure, pressure changes. Euler hydrostatic equation. Surface area. Overpressure and underpressure. Pascal`s law and its applications.

2. Hydrostatics. Hydrostatic force acting at horizontal and inclined plane area, pressure body. Determination of bearing point of hydrostatic force. Resolution of hydrostatic force in components, pressure diagrams. Effective distribution of horizontal beams. Archimedes principal and buoyancy force. Floating bodies. Immersion of floating bodies.
3. Basics of hydrodynamics. Characteristics of cross section. Trajectory and streamline. Point and mean velocity, discharge. Kinds and forms of flow. Continuity equation. Euler hydrodynamic equation for ideal liquid. Bernoulli equation for ideal and real liquid - applications. Momentum equation.
4. Hydraulics of pipelines. Application of Bernoulli and continuity equation. Friction loss. Darcy-Weisbach equation. Friction losses coefficient and its determination, Moody diagram. Local losses – source of losses, coefficients of local losses.
5. Hydraulics of pipelines. Hydraulic calculations of pipelines. Underpressure in a pipeline – example: siphon. System pipeline – pump. Pipeline systems. Water hammer.
6. Outflow from orifice. Kinds of outflow. Free steady outflow of ideal liquid. Free steady outflow of real liquid from orifice in bottom and in vertical wall. Outflow from submerged orifice. Outflow jets and their decay.
7. Open channel hydraulics. Kinds of flow – steady and unsteady flow, uniform and non-uniform flow. Friction losses under uniform flow, Chezy equation, coefficient of friction loss, velocity coefficient. Hydraulic resolution of channels, incl. determination of roughness coefficient. Design of open channels, incl. compound channels and closed profiles with free level.
8. Open channel hydraulics. Critical, subcritical and supercritical flow – specific energy, common condition of critical flow. Determination of critical depth and regime of flow. Non-uniform flow, shape of water levels, backwater and drawdown. Hydraulic jump.
9. Application of momentum equation. Hydraulic jump. Force effect under pressure flow in pipelines. Hydrodynamic force acting on slide gate. Force effect of free jet acting on an area (blade of turbine).  
10. Hydraulics of hydraulic structures on water courses. Overflow, spillways: Sharp crested spillway, wide crested spillway. Hydraulic calculations of bridge with one opening. Flow in culverts.
11. Hydraulics of ground water. Forms of underground water. Filtration law. Plane flow – uniform and non uniform, drawdown curve under non-uniform flow on horizontal bedrock. Resolution of ground water uptake from wells and drainage cuts.
12. Discharge measurements. Usage. Methods of measurements. Equipment for discharge measurement.
13. Summary of the HYAE content.

Ing. Ivana Marešová CSc. (B825)